Home page – tab across top (photo of clear water – drinking??)
Welcome to the Total Water Solutions website.
Total Water Solutions offers a wide range of filtration options to suit your water needs – whether they be domestic or commercial requirements. With over 20 years’ experience, we offer you effective advice, competitive pricing and outstanding service.
Our comprehensive range of services includes:
• Complete range of water filters and filtration equipment for domestic, commercial and industrial applications including reverse osmosis, ultraviolet, microfiltration and water softeners
• Water testing and analysis
• Consultation and recommendations based on intended water use
• Installation, servicing and project management for all products

About Us page – tab across top (photo of Peter & Mel??)
From the desk of Managing Director, Peter Hopper

‘About 25 years ago I was working in the health care industry. I was keenly aware that the quality of our water was declining and that people were beginning to show water related sensitivities. Coupled with a background in construction, I could see the need for people to have options in their homes for improving the water they were using.

After extensive research, I knew that my skills could be utilised in providing the best quality water to households and businesses alike. My wife and I, founded Total Water Solutions in order to bring together an analytical and technical team to meet your water needs. We also work with a comprehensive list of specialist plumbers and electricians who consistently support our work with reliable service.

Over the past 20 years I have extensively researched filtration options and kept at the forefront of global initiatives. I am pleased to say that I have great confidence in recommending the comprehensive range of leading filtration equipment we have on offer.

Total Water Solutions also demonstrates a commitment to providing high quality installation and after-sales service. The commitment of all those involved in Total Water Solutions is to provide excellent service and high quality products to all clients. We look forward to servicing your needs.

Yours sincerely
Peter Hopper
Your Water page – tab across top
About Water (drop down from Your Water tab)
Prolonged drought, water shortages and concerns for our health have changed forever the way Australians think about water – no more so than in the fast growing area of South East Queensland. Not so long ago we assumed the water out of our taps was OK if it looked clean and didn’t smell too bad.
With global connections through the internet and information becoming more readily available – people are starting to ask questions about their water.
Will we have enough water into the future?
Where does our water come from?
How safe is it to drink?

Governments wrestle with the sources and supply of water.
Business and industry want to know about its purpose driven suitability and how to minimise usage.
Householders want to know more about its quality and how to improve it.

That’s where we come in. Total Water Solutions is your leading provider in a comprehensive range of products, advice, and analytical and consulting services; aimed at optimising the use of our most precious of resources.
Our website intends to answer the questions you have about your water and let you know how we can help solve any of your water related problems.
Why Purify Water? (drop down from Your Water tab)
To answer this question it is important to know something about the qualities of water.
Water is like a magnet. When it comes into contact with other substances, it readily absorbs them. That means as rain water moves through our environment, it can pick up harmful substances which are then drawn into our water supply – for example air pollution or toxic chemicals in the ground. Without filtration, we end up drinking these substances and bathing in them.
Depending on the minerals it contains, water can also damage or cause corrosion to pipes and appliances.
Water quality is dictated by:
• the occurrence of natural pollutants like minerals in the soil
• intended additives – chlorine/fluoride; and
• accidental additives – run off from mining or agricultural activities, leaching of surrounding soils or airborne pollutants

The science to analyse water problems and the technology for solving them have made rapid advances in recent times. So whether it’s domestic drinking & working water or industrial & commercial water, Total Water Solutions has the answers to water purification and efficiency in water usage.
Water comes into our homes from different sources – each having a unique set of characteristics.

Tank Water (this heading is on the ‘why Purify Water’ page)
Tank water collected off your roof through gutters and downpipes, is open to a variety of contaminations: from chemical pollutants in the city, through to leaves, dirt and animal droppings. In some areas …Continue reading →

(I like the ‘continue reading’ click through so let’s keep that set up……then the rest of the Tank Water Page is as follows)

…birds and bats feeding from overhanging fruit trees, can pollute tank water very quickly. Eucalypts are also renowned for causing tannin contamination to tank water. Problems with corrosion of metal pipes and fittings can also be encountered with tank water as rain water is naturally acidic.
There are various methods for eliminating contaminants from the drinking water. These range from boiling the water for 10 minutes through to micro-filtration and ozonation. (link this word to wiki)
Common problems & associated treatments: (this is still on ‘Tank Water’ page)
(each of the main bullet points below should link to their own page of information from the underlined heading. I’ve highlighted the wording I want to show on the Tank Water page in yellow and the rest of the info can be on the linked page)
• Bacterial Contamination – Bacteria is present anywhere that organic matter is breaking down. Even if the water looks, smells and tastes okay, bacteria can still be present.
Small animals or leaves that might be de-composing in your gutters are all sources of bacterial contamination. This will usually be the cause of any bad taste and odour in your water. Not all filters deal with bacterial contamination, which means it is important to ensure you have the correct filter when using un-sterilised water.
Treatment: (this is on ‘Bacterial Contamination’ page)
Bacteria is usually removed by micro-filtration or sterilised with ultra-violet light. It can also be removed by oxidation using ozone, hydrogen peroxide, or chlorine (as is commonly used in town water treatments).

Standard carbon filters are not recommended for bacterial removal. They do take out bacteria from the water flowing through the filter, however, the live bacteria collects inside the filter causing it to become a breeding ground. This eventually results in your water being more contaminated after a very short time.

# We generally recommend the following system types for bacterial removal from tank water for household use: (link the following bullets to the relevant pages from the Product page)
 Countertop Filtration
 Undersink Filtration
 Blackstone Filtration
 Whole of House Filtration
 Reverse Osmosis Filtration
 UV Filtration

# filtration requirements will differ from site to site. As such please contact us for analysis and advice specific to your needs.

• Parasitic Contamination – Animal droppings are the primary source of parasites in tank water. Giardia and cryptosporidium……

…..are parasites commonly found in the intestines of possums, rats and birds. As the name parasite indicates, these animals are considered ‘hosts’.

When you drink the contaminated water, you become the host. Diarrhoea and chronic lack of energy can be symptoms of parasitic infestation.

Protection against this possibility is very simple and inexpensive. Filtration against parasites will give you the peace of mind that no matter what drops on your roof, the health of your family will not be at risk.

NB: It is important to note that chlorine will not sterilise water against parasites.
Treatment: (this is on ‘Parasitic Contamination’ page)
Parasites or cysts, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, are easily filtered out of water using micro-filtration. Ultra-violet light and ozone will also sterilise parasites. Parasites, although relatively large cannot be seen with the naked eye, nor can we taste them.

# We generally recommend the following system types for parasitic removal from tank water for household use: (link the following bullets to the relevant pages from the Product page)
 Countertop Filtration
 Undersink Filtration
 Blackstone Filtration
 Whole of House Filtration
 Reverse Osmosis Filtration
 UV Filtration

# filtration requirements will differ from site to site. As such please contact us for analysis and advice specific to your needs.
• Water hardness – Do you experience difficulty getting soap to lather? Is there scale in your kettle? Are there white spots on glass surfaces? These are all signs of hard water.
You may also experience the water flow to your home being reduced or your hot water system seemingly inefficient.
Water becomes hard when it comes into contact with certain minerals on its journey to your taps. Because water acts like a magnet, it will absorb the minerals from the ground as it makes its way to your home.
The most common minerals to cause water hardness are calcium and magnesium oxides.

Treatment: (this is on ‘Water Hardness’ page)
Installation of a water softener will correct the following symptoms:
 Soap won’t lather
 Soap suds & scum stick to wash basins & bath
 White/grey scale in pipes
 Blocked dishwasher pipes
 Scale build-up in agricultural pipes
 Hot water heaters (conventional & solar) scale on heating surfaces causing inefficiency or complete failure
 Boiler pipes blocked with scale
 Shower heads, hydroponic drips, dental drill tips etc. blocked
 Drying marks on crockery, cutlery, film surfaces, or car duco after washing etc.
On other applications magnetiser technologies may be used especially for descaling and larger flow rate applications: eg. irrigation & feed water, boilers or heat exchangers.
# We generally recommend the following system types to soften tank water for household use: (link the following bullets to the relevant pages from the Product page)
 Countertop Filtration
 Undersink Filtration
 Blackstone Filtration
 Whole of House Filtration
 Reverse Osmosis Filtration
 UV Filtration

# filtration requirements will differ from site to site. As such please contact us for analysis and advice specific to your needs.

• Sediment – Sediment size ranges from large visible particles to particles that can’t be seen with the naked eye.
These particles can act as vehicles for other contaminants like parasites and bacteria. Colouration in your water (tannin) is usually caused by sediment particles as well.
Sediment filtration is always the starting point for any good filtration system. With the sediment removed from your water, your higher-grade filters won’t clog. This means your water is healthier to drink and your higher grade filters will last longer and be more effective.
Treatment: (this is on ‘Sediment’ page)
Removal of sediment from water is the basic requirement for most water treatment. This can be done using large sieve filters (eg. top of a rain water tank) right through to micro-filtration. Sediment is removed by filtration or flocculation. (link this word to wiki)

# We generally recommend the following system types to remove sediment from tank water for household use: (link the following bullets to the relevant pages from the Product page)
 Countertop Filtration
 Undersink Filtration
 Blackstone Filtration
 Whole of House Filtration
 Reverse Osmosis Filtration
 UV Filtration

# filtration requirements will differ from site to site. As such please contact us for analysis and advice specific to your needs.
Town Water (this heading is on the ‘why Purify Water Page’)
Town water originally comes from a variety of sources. Water authorities set up catchment areas that trap the water running above and through the ground. It then sits in large dams waiting to be used. Town water is known as a …Continue reading →

(I like the ‘continue reading click through so let’s keep that set up……then the rest of the Town Water Page is as follows)

……. sterilised water source. This means the water is treated with chemicals to kill contaminants before it is sent from the dams to our homes.
It is important to note that this water, while treated for potentially nasty additives, is not pure. Chlorine and some chemicals which are used in this treatment process are detrimental to health and can make water taste terrible.

Common Problems & associated treatments: (this is on ‘Town Water’ page)
(each of the points below should link to their own page of information from the underlined heading. I’ve highlighted the wording I want to show on the Town Water page in yellow and the rest of the info can be on the linked page)

• Water hardness – Do you experience difficulty getting soap to lather? Is there scale in your kettle? Are there white spots on glass surfaces? These are all signs of hard water.
You may also experience the water flow to your home being reduced or your hot water system seemingly inefficient.
Water becomes hard when it comes into contact with certain minerals on its journey to your taps. Because water acts like a magnet, it will absorb the minerals from the ground as it makes its way to your home.
The most common minerals to cause water hardness are calcium and magnesium oxides.

Treatment: (this is on ‘Water Hardness’ page)
Installation of a water softener will correct the following symptoms:
 Soap won’t lather
 Soap suds & scum stick to wash basins & bath
 White/grey scale in pipes
 Blocked dishwasher pipes
 Scale build-up in agricultural pipes
 Hot water heaters (conventional & solar) scale on heating surfaces causing inefficiency or complete failure
 Boiler pipes blocked with scale
 Shower heads, hydroponic drips, dental drill tips etc. blocked
 Drying marks on crockery, cutlery, film surfaces, or car duco after washing etc.
On other applications magnetiser technologies may be used especially for descaling and larger flow rate applications: eg. irrigation & feed water, boilers or heat exchangers.
# We generally recommend the following system types to soften tank water for household use: (link the following bullets to the relevant pages from the Product page)
 Countertop Filtration
 Undersink Filtration
 Blackstone Filtration
 Whole of House Filtration
 Reverse Osmosis Filtration
 UV Filtration

# filtration requirements will differ from site to site. As such please contact us for analysis and advice specific to your needs.
• Chlorine & Fluoride – The taste and odour from these chemicals can sometimes be overwhelming – especially when mass treatments have just occurred.

Whilst chemical dosing of water can kill bacteria and parasites at the source, it does not …..eliminate pesticides or heavy metals. When water is treated with chlorine it is possible that small amounts of chemical byproducts such as trihalomethanes (THMs) (link this word to wiki) can be formed. These are potentially dangerous to your health. (need more info here)

Treatment: (this is on ‘Chlorine & Fluoride’ page)
Removal of chlorine and fluoride from water is …….(more info here)

# We generally recommend the following system types to filtration to remove chlorine and fluoride from town water for household use: (link the following bullets to the relevant pages from the Product page)
 Countertop Filtration
 Undersink Filtration
 Blackstone Filtration
 Whole of House Filtration
 Reverse Osmosis Filtration
 UV Filtration

# filtration requirements will differ from site to site. As such please contact us for analysis and advice specific to your needs.

Dam/Creek/Rivers/Bore Water (this heading is on the ‘why Purify Water Page’)
The contamination found in tank water can also be found in these source waters. Some additional contamination……Continue reading →

(I like the ‘continue reading click through so let’s keep that set up……then the rest of the Dam etc Water Page is as follows)

…… from ground minerals and ground surface pollutants may also be present in these water sources. As you might think, with significant variations of soil quality from property to property, a water analysis is a good start to let you know the best uses for water from these sources. For example, bore water on your property may only be suitable for your garden. However bore water on your neighbour’s property may be suitable for drinking!
Common problems & associated treatments: (this is on the ‘Dam/Creek etc’ page)
(each of the points below should link to their own page of information from the underlined heading. I’ve highlighted the wording I want to show on the current page in yellow and the rest of the info can be on the linked page)
• Bacterial Contamination – Bacteria are present anywhere that organic matter is breaking down. Even if the water looks, smells and tastes okay, bacteria can still be present.
Small animals or leaves that might be de-composing in your dam/creek, are all sources of bacterial contamination. This will usually be the cause of any bad taste and odour in your water. Not all filters deal with bacterial contamination, which means it is important to ensure you have the correct filter when using un-sterilised water.
Treatment: (this is on the ‘Bacterial Contamination’ page)
The recommended treatment will depend upon the intended use for your water from these sources. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration based on the intended use and a water analysis. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)

• Parasitic Contamination – Animal droppings are the primary source of parasites in tank water.

Giardia and cryptosporidium are parasites commonly found in the intestines of possums, rats and birds. As the name parasite indicates, these animals are considered ‘hosts’.

When you drink the contaminated water, you become a host. Diarrhoea and chronic lack of energy can be symptoms of parasitic infestation.

Protection against this possibility is very simple and inexpensive and it will give you the peace of mind that whatever drops on your roof, the health of your family will not be at risk.

Treatment: (this is on the ‘Parasitic Contamination’ page)
The recommended treatment will depend upon the intended use for your water from these sources. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration based on the intended use and a water analysis. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)
• Water hardness – Do you experience difficulty getting soap to lather? Is there scale in your kettle? Are there white spots on glass surfaces? These are all signs of hard water.
You may also experience the water flow to your home being reduced or your hot water system seemingly inefficient.
Water becomes hard when it comes into contact with certain minerals on its journey to your taps. Because water acts like a magnet, it will absorb the minerals from the ground as it makes its way to your home.
The most common minerals to cause water hardness are calcium and magnesium oxides.

Treatment: (this is on the ‘Water Hardness’ page)
The recommended treatment will depend upon the intended use for your water from these sources. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration based on the intended use and a water analysis. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)

• Sediment – Sediment ranges from large visible particles to particles that can’t be seen with the naked eye.
These particles can act as vehicles for the other contaminants like parasites and bacteria. Colouration in your water (tannin) is usually caused by sediment particles as well.
Sediment filtration is always the starting point for any good filtration system. With the sediment removed from your water, your higher-grade filters won’t clog. This means your water is healthier to drink and your higher grade filters will last longer and be more effective.
Treatment: (this is on the ‘Sediment’’ page)
The recommended treatment will depend upon the intended use for your water from these sources. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration based on the intended use and a water analysis. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)
Products page – tab across top
Having been in the filtration business for 20 years, we’ve tried and tested many products. The range we currently work with has been handpicked and tested, so that we can ensure the best possible service for our customers.
• Countertop Filtration – can be used to filter drinking water at a sink from any source. It’s handy for those who want great tasting water but might be on the move. This system is easy to take with you wherever you go. (click through to another page from underlined wording)

(Countertop Filtration page) The housings seen in this photo can contain a variety of cartridges depending upon the needs of the household. There are cartridges that remove sediment, bacteria, parasites, herbicides, fluoride, chlorine and taste/odour. The type of cartridge supplied will be assessed based on where your water is coming from eg tank, town etc and what you want filtered out, in order to make the water suitable for drinking purposes.
The recommended filtration system will depend upon the intended use for your water, your water source and the quality of your incoming water. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration for your home. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)

• Undersink Filtration– can be used to filter drinking water at a sink from any source. It’s a fixed system under your sink. (click through to another page from underlined wording)

(Undersink Filtration page) The housings seen in this photo can contain a variety of cartridges depending upon the needs of the household. There are cartridges that remove sediment, bacteria, parasites, herbicides, fluoride, chlorine and taste/odour. The type of cartridge supplied will be assessed based on where your water is coming from eg tank, town etc and what you want filtered out, in order to make the water suitable for drinking purposes.

The recommended filtration system will depend upon the intended use for your water, your water source and the quality of your incoming water. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration for your home. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)

• Blackstone & Homeguard Filtration– These filters simply install on the incoming water line and are mounted in a convenient place outside your house for easy access and element replacement. (click through to another page from underlined wording)

(Blackstone Page) The Blackstone and Homeguard Water Filters provide filtered water to the whole house removing:
1. Fluoride and chlorine
2. Chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides
3. Parasites such as giardia and cryptosporidium
4. Toxins and bacteria
Blackstone Combination Filters can be fitted to homes with town or tank water. We simply change the combination of cartridges inside the filter to best suit your water source. This filter has the capacity to sediment, parasites, chlorine, bacteria, herbicides, pesticides and many other harmful chemicals.
Homeguard Filters are most suited to homes on town water. They do the same job as the Blackstone Filter but have an added cartridge that removes fluoride.
Homeguard Ionising Filters are again suited to a homes on town water. This filter incorporates all of the removal elements of the Blackstone and Homeguard filters but includes an added cartridge that ionises water.
The recommended filtration system will depend upon the intended use for your water, your water source and the quality of your incoming water. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration for your home. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)

• Whole of House Filtration– Whole of House filtration can be fitted on all homes with any type of incoming water source. These filters ensure that no matter what the use for your water – it is clean and safe. (click through to another page from underlined wording)

(Whole of House page) Whole of house filtration is usually a combination of filters based on the needs of your home. An example may be that you would have a sediment filter in the first phase to eliminate sediment going into the rest of the system. This protects the rest of your filtration system by keeping it clean and provides longevity. You might then have a Blackstone next in the process which will filter our bacteria, parasites and toxins, followed by a UV filter which will provide a final polish to the water eliminating any further microscopic material.

The recommended filtration system will depend upon the intended use for your water, your water source and the quality of your incoming water. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration for your home. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)
• Reverse Osmosis Filtration– Reverse Osmosis filtration produces high quality water by forcing water through a semi-permeable membrane under pressure.

Reverse osmosis water filters remove 90-99% of all contaminants from water, including excess inorganic minerals. It will remove much smaller contaminants than sediment filters.

Sediment, herbicides, pesticides, hardness minerals, chlorine, and fluoride will all be removed. The final stage of filtering removes and taste or odour residue. Other stages will re-balance the pH of your water, further sanitise, polish and ionise the water.
The recommended filtration system will depend upon the intended use for your water, your water source and the quality of your incoming water. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration for your home. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)
• UV Filtration– will get to the smallest of residue of contaminants.

Ultraviolet sterilization will eliminate bacteria, moulds, fungal spores, viruses, parasites and yeasts.

The recommended filtration system will depend upon the intended use for your water, your water source and the quality of your incoming water. It is important that you get advice on the correct filtration for your home. Please contact us in order to discuss your individual needs. (link the please contact us to Contact page)

• Cartridges – we stock a range of cartridges for the various systems listed above.
o Sediment
o Ceramic
o Carbon
o Others?

Services page – tab across the top
At Total Water Solutions we strive to provide quality products and professional advice & service. Listed below are some of the services we provide to help you access the best possible water available to you.
WATER ANALYSIS TESTS
Total Water Solutions provides microbiological, basic mineral and comprehensive mineral analysis for all water sources. If you’re worried about what might be in the tank water you’re drinking, or want to check if your dam or bore water is suitable to use in the house, give us a call today. We can arrange pick up of water samples or they can be dropped in to our office at Maleny.
WATER FILTRATION
A complete range of quality filtration equipment is available for all water sources and requirements, including sediment, carbon, ceramic, reverse osmosis, de-ionization, neutralization and water softeners. We can supply, install and service all equipment from small under sink units to whole of house filter systems and softeners. We use only quality products including KINETICO filters and DOULTON cartridges. Quotes and professional friendly advice is free.
INSTALLATION AND SERVICING
We provide installation and servicing for all our filter systems. We stand by our products and service and will ensure you are completely happy with the product and the installation.
CONSULTATION
Specialist consultation on water issues is available on request. Phone us for advice on your specific water issues.

Commercial page – tab across the top
As well as domestic filtration, Total Water Solutions provides effective, sustainable water savings to all commercial and high rise water users. We conduct water use assessments and audits based on water used, energy consumed and sewage outflow.
Total Water Solutions also supplies and installs filtration and treatment plants for laundries, hospitals, factories, dental surgeries, resorts and cabin developments.
We also sell natural products that help reduce grease trap blockages in drains as well as eliminating odour problems. Effective and sustainable savings are being achieved in commercial kitchens, butchers shops, restaurants and hospitals.

FAQ page – tab across the top
Q: What are the costs involved in installing a water filtration system?
A: For little more than a store bought ‘charcoal jug’, you can install a simple filtration system that eliminates what the jug cannot eg chlorine giardia, pesticides and herbicides.

Q: Where are you located?
A: Total Water Solutions is based in Maleny, in the Sunshine Coast hinterland, Queensland. We actively service the Sunshine Coast region from this location. For clients outside this geographic area, we are able to provide phone advice and quotes; and supplying filtration systems via courier for you to install.

Q: Do you service the system after you’ve installed it?
A: Total Water Solutions provides a comprehensive on-site maintenance service to customers in the Sunshine Coast region. Regular servicing is imperative to the effective functioning of your system. We also respond promptly to emergency filtration situations.

Q: Do you sell filter cartridges for my system and can I change them myself?
A: Cartridges can be purchased directly from the office in Maleny or we can mail/courier your order to you. We provide email/mail/phone reminders to you of when your cartridges are due to be changed based on the quality of your water and household usage. We can provide instructions for most systems for you to change the cartridges yourself, however we would suggest a professional service for some systems.

Q: What are some common water problems?
A: Water issues can be specific to the source eg:
Town Water
• Parasites
• Bacteria
• Hard Water
• Chlorine
• Flouride
• Toxic Chemicals (link these back to relevant pages)

Tank Water
• Parasites
• Bacteria
• Toxic chemicals

Dam/creek/Bore
• Parasites
• bacteria
• hardness minerals
Q: What are the types of water treatments you would recommend?
A: The recommended treatment will depend on a few things – what do you want to use your water for; where is your water coming from; the quality of your water at the source. Once those questions have been answered, Total Water Solutions will be able to recommend a system that is most suitable to your needs and that will effectively and efficiently provide the best quality water to your home.

Click here to see the range of products we provide. (link back to products page)
For those who are technically minded, we thought to include some interesting information about the carbon filtration process.

How does carbon filtration work and what is the process in making a carbon filter?

How does carbon filtration work?
Carbon is manufactured by the controlled burning of cellulose. The temperature of the burn and the amount of oxygen entering the process control the hardness, filtering power and grain size of the carbon.

Carbon filters water, not only through grain size, but also by its ability to bind organic and inorganic materials to itself through an electrical charge on its surface – a process known as adsorption. (link to Wikipedia)

Carbon filtration is used for filtering wastewater and removing fine insoluble, metals and chlorine compounds from domestic water. Carbon filtration is also used to control biological contamination in water.
There are several types of carbon produced for differing filtration needs.
What is activated carbon?
We prefer to use activated carbon in our filtration systems allowing for more uptakes of contaminants.
Activated carbon is made from any organic material containing carbon. Commercial carbons are made from sawdust, wood, charcoal, peat, lignite, petroleum coke, bituminous coal, and coconut shells.
We choose these raw materials in order to provide the best activated carbon to our customers.

How is activated carbon produced?
Let’s choose coal as our raw organic material from which we are going to make activated carbon.
The coal is pulverized to very fine particles like talcum powder. The powdered coal is mixed with a binder to “glue” it back together. Then it’s pressed into briquettes. These are then crushed and classified to the size of the desired end product. This process, called reagglomeration, creates a uniformly activated carbon that is harder and less dusty than the original product.
The sized material is heated in an oxygen void environment to remove the volatile components of the coal. The carbon is then activated by additional heating in a controlled environment of oxygen and steam. The activation process creates a highly porous graphitic plate structure with tremendous surface area.

How much surface area does activated carbon have?
500 grams of activated carbon has a surface area equal to 125 acres of land.

How much does it weigh?
Pure carbon weighs about 180 kilograms per cubic meter. It is much denser than activated carbon. During the manufacturing process the structure is “opened up,” creating porosity (pore volume) inside the granule. The finished product “activated carbon” has a density between 33 to 54 kilograms per cubic meter.

How much void space is in carbon?
A container of carbon is roughly 20% carbon, 40% interstitial space (the volume between the carbon granules), and 40% pore volume (the volume inside the carbon granules).
Another way to visualize this is: If you had a 200 litre drum full of dry carbon, you could add 166 litres of water to the drum before it would overflow. Therefore, 80 percent of the drum volume is air.
What is this pore space?
The pore space is the internal volume of the carbon granule. It consists of all the cracks and crevices created when the coal is crushed and glued back together, and the volume between the graphite plates. The distance between the graphite plates determines whether the space is an adsorption pore or a transport pore.

What is an adsorption pore?
Adsorption pores are the internal volume where the graphitic plates are very close together creating a higher energy. Higher energy is important to adsorption because it is the energy that “holds” the contaminant (the carbon “adsorbs” the contaminant). The volume where the graphite plates are far apart and the cracks and crevices make up the transport pores. It is important to note that all adsorption takes place in the adsorption pores and not the transport pores.

What do you mean – an adsorption pore is a higher-energy area?
There is a natural attractive force between all things in the universe. Gravity is one of these forces. In adsorption theory, the force between the contaminate and the carbon is the adsorptive force. It technically is a Van der Waals force. It is this attractive force that enables adsorption to occur. The forces are a function of the distance between the two objects. The closer together the objects are, the higher the attractive force is. The higher the attractive force, the higher the “energy” level of the pore space.

What is a transport pore?
Transport pores are the internal volume of the carbon granule where the graphitic plates are far apart or the cracks and crevices of the particle. The transport pores act as the “highways” for the contaminants to reach the adsorption pores where they are adsorbed. It is important to note that no adsorption takes place in the transport pores. Transport pores are vitally important, as they allow access to the adsorption pores – especially those deeper within the carbon granule.

That’s the process for getting the carbon filter made. What happens when that carbon filter is introduced into a water filtration system?

Why is it important to fully wet the carbon filter before I start using my system?
A container of carbon is roughly 20% carbon, 40% interstitial space (the volume between the carbon granules), and 40% pore volume (the volume inside the carbon granules). If air remains in the pore volume, your water can’t get to the surface of the carbon. The air becomes a barrier to the carbon functioning properly.

How long does it take to fully wet the carbon?
Typically, it’s recommended to fill your system with water and allow it to sit full and idle for 24 hours. This time allows the water to displace all of the air in the pores of the carbon. After the system has been idle for 24 hours, the next step is to use an upflow backwash to displace any air that has been trapped in the carbon bed. This backwash will also remove most of the carbon fines in the system.

How does the carbon remove the contaminant?
Once the contaminant enters the carbon granule via the transport pore space, it diffuses into the carbon matrix until it enters the smaller pores where the adsorptive forces begin to take effect. Once it reaches a higher-energy area, it can no longer migrate (or diffuse) because the adsorptive force is stronger than the diffusional force. The contaminant is adsorbed to the carbon surface by the adsorptive forces (the Van der Waals forces). In this state, the contaminant is referred to as the adsorbate.